Past Perfect (I had played)
Das Past Perfect (manchmal auch Pluperfect genannt) wird verwendet, wenn man über zwei aufeinanderfolgende vergangene Ereignisse sprechen möchte, d. h. wenn man über eine Handlung sprechen möchte, die vor einer anderen vergangenen Handlung stattgefunden hat.
Für die Übersetzung ins Deutsche kann man sagen, dass es dem Plusquamperfekt entspricht (z. B.: ‘Sie hatte gelernt…’ ‘Er war schon weg…’ ).
Subjekt + had (have im past simple) + Partizip Perfekt (worked, been, gone…)
|I / you / we / they||I had played||I had not (hadn’t) played||Had I played?_|
|he / she / it||He had played_||He had not (hadn’t) played_||Had he played?_|
- (+) She had studied Japanese before she moved to Tokyo.
- (?) Had she studied Japanese before she moved to Tokyo?
- (-) She had not studied Japanese before she moved to Tokyo.
2/ Erklärung und Verwendung
* Wenn zwei Handlungen zu unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten in der Vergangenheit stattgefunden haben
Man verwendet das Past Perfect, um von der Handlung zu sprechen, die zuerst stattfindet, und das Past Simple (= Preterit) für die zweite Handlung.
- The bus had already left when Tom arrived at the bus stop.
- We watched a horror movie after the kids had gone to bed.
- By the time Tina finished shopping, John had been at the bar for one hour.
- I had never eaten such a good sushi before I went to Japan.
- I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
- Barbara knew Sydney well because she had visited the city many times.
- Had Tom studied english before he moved to the USA?
- He was not able to get a ticket for the show because he hadn’t booked in advance.
- She checked with the post office and they still hadn’t received her package.
- I had eaten dinner before they arrived.
* Um eine hypothetische Vergangenheit auszudrücken, mit “if” (um über Dinge zu sprechen, die hätten passieren können)
- If John had been able to drive a car, he would have gone home earlier.
- If I hadn’t drunk so much coffee, I would have slept last night.
* Um Bedauern auszudrücken (mit ‘wish’ oder ‘If only’)
- If only I had invited her to the cinema.
- If I had known, I wouldn’t have come.
- I wish he hadn’t failed his driving exam.
- He wishes he hadn’t bought that car.
- She wishes she had stayed in Miami longer.
- I wish I had done scuba diving when I went to Indonesia.
* Für die indirekte Rede, wenn man erzählen will, was jemand gesagt, gedacht oder geglaubt hat (oft mit den Verben said, told, thought, explained, asked, wondered, believed…)
- ‘I have seen… ‘ → He said he had seen…
- ‘I lost my wallet’ → She said she had lost her wallet.
- She told us that the bus had left.
- I thought we had already decided to go to Paris this summer.
- He explained that he had locked the window because of the thieves.
- I wondered if she had seen this movie before.
- I asked him why he had bought this house.
- They told me they had already paid the bill.
⚠️ Past perfect + just
Man verwendet das Past Perfect mit ‘just’, um auszudrücken, dass etwas vor kurzem passiert ist:
- The train had just left when we arrived at the station.
- She had just left the room when she heard a noise.
- He had just washed the car when it started to rain.
⚠️ Mit ‘when’:
- When you were born, the internet hadn’t already been created.
- When I finished high school, I hadn’t learnt to drive a car yet.
- When I went to the bar, they had already been drinking a lot.
⚠️ Mit ‘before’ / ‘after’:
Wenn die Handlung im Past Perfect zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt stattgefunden hat und ‘before’ oder ‘after’ im Satz verwendet werden, kann man es durch das Past Simple ersetzen.
- He had visited Melbourne once in 2011 before he moved there in 2013.
- = He visited Melbourne once in 2011 before he moved there in 2013.
ABER wenn das Past Perfect nicht auf eine vergangene Handlung zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt passt, kann man das Past Simple nicht verwenden:
- He never saw a kangaroo before he moved to Australia. ❌
- He had never seen a kangaroo before he moved to Australia. ✔️
⚠️ Had + had
- We had had that car for two years before it broke down.
- I wish I had had more girlfriends when I was young.
⚠️ Die aktive / passive Stimme:
- Nathan had created many websites before he started his business. (Active)
- Many websites had been created by Nathan before he started his business. (Passive)
⚠️ Einige Wörter, die häufig in Verbindung mit Past Perfect verwendet werden:
already, just, before, when, by the time, once, twice, three times…
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